June 1, 2011

Wheat Structure

Wheat Structure
Wheat structure is a single seeded fruit, 4 to 10 mm long, consisting of a germ and endosperm enclosed by an epidermis and a seed coat.

The fruit coat or pericaprs (45 to 50 um thick) surrounds the seed and adhere closely to the seed coat.

The wheat color, depending on the species and other factors is red a to white and is due to material present in the seed coat.

Wheat also is classified based on physical characterizes such as red, white soft, hard spring or winter.

The outer pericaprs is consist of the epidermis and hypodermis. The epidermis consists of a single layer of cells that from the outer surface of the kernel.

On the outer walls of the epidermal cells is the water impervious cuticle. Some epidermal cells at the apex of the kernel are modified to form hairs.

The hypodermis is composed of one to two layers of cells. The inner pericaprs is composed of intermediate cells and cross –cells inward from hypodermis.

Long and cylindrical tube cells constitute the inner epidermis of the pericaprs. In the crease, the seed coat joins the pigment strand, and together they form a complete coat about the endosperm and germ.

Three layers can be distinguished in the seed coat: a thick outer cuticle, a “color layer” that contains pigment, and a very thin inner cuticle.

The bran comprises all outer structures of the kernel inward to, and including the aleurone layer.

This layer is the outer layer of the endosperm, but is considered as part of the bran by millers.

The aleurone layer is usually one cell thick and almost completely surrounds the kernel over the starchy endosperm and germ.

The endosperm is composed of peripheral, prismatic and central cells that are different in shape, size and position within the kernel.

The endosperm cells are packed with starch granules, which lie embedded in a matrix that is largely protein.
Wheat Structure
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